Stem Cell Therapy: A Comprehensive Overview

Louis A. Cona, MD
Updated on
Jan 27, 2023
5

minute read

This article defines and reviews the potential of stem cell therapy as a promising treatment option for various medical conditions. It also discusses and defines stem cells and their importance in the field of regenerative medicine.

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What is stem cell therapy?

Stem cell therapy is a form of regenerative medicine designed to repair damaged cells within the body by reducing inflammation and modulating the immune system. This phenomenon makes stem cell therapy a viable treatment option for various medical conditions.  Stem cell therapies have been used to treat autoimmune, inflammatory, neurological, orthopedic conditions, and traumatic injuries, with studies conducted on use for Crohn's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, COPD, Parkinson's, ALS, Stroke recovery, and more.

While new stem cell therapies don't necessarily cure these conditions, the premise is to allow the body to heal itself well enough to mitigate the symptoms of the requirements for long periods. In many cases, this effect can substantially increase the quality of life for patients as well as delay disease progression.


Stem cell therapy defined

Stem cell therapy is a form of regenerative medicine designed to repair damaged cells within the body by reducing inflammation and modulating the immune system. It can be used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and neurological disorders.

Several types of stem cell treatments are available, including amniotic fluid stem cell treatment and umbilical cord-derived stem cell treatment. The most common FDA-approved stem cell-based therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which treats blood cancers like leukemia. Stem cells can also be regenerative therapy for severe skin burns and seriously damaged corneas.

What does stem cell therapy do?

Stem cell therapy, a type of regenerative medicine, utilizes stem cells or their derivatives to stimulate the body's own healing processes and repair damaged, diseased or injured tissue. This approach represents a promising new frontier in the field of transplantation, as it harnesses the power of cells rather than relying on limited supplies of donor organs.

The use of adult stem cells in modern medical treatments

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell in many body tissues, including bone marrow, fat tissue, and muscle. MSCs can differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat cells.

MSCs have shown promise as a regenerative therapy for various diseases and conditions. In preclinical and clinical studies, MSCs have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects invoking a positive immune response. They have been used to treat human diseases, including autoimmune diseases, degenerative neurological conditions, spinal cord injuries, joint pain, and other diseases affecting the human condition.

One of the key benefits of using MSCs for stem cell therapy is that they can be easily obtained from various sources and expanded in the laboratory. MSCs also have a low risk of immune rejection, as they are less immunogenic than other stem cells.

Overall, using MSCs for stem cell therapy holds great promise for treating various diseases and conditions. While more research is needed to fully understand these cells' potential and develop safe and effective treatments using MSCs, early results are encouraging. MSCs have the potential to be a valuable tool in the field of regenerative medicine.

Artists depiction of mesenchymal stem cells
Artists depiction of mesenchymal stem cells

A form of regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving replacing, repairing, or regenerating impaired body organs, tissues, and cells. It is a cell-based therapy that consists of the injection of stem or progenitor cells and the induction of generation by biologically active molecules.  The goal of the transplanted cells is to mitigate the effects of human disease by reducing symptoms and stabilizing a medical condition.

Each adult body cell has regenerative properties which can be reprogrammed to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or genetic effects.

Regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize how we treat disease, and treatments are being performed right now that utilize these principles. These treatments involve using the body's natural ability to heal itself in many ways, such as repairing cuts in the skin and mending broken bones.

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are specialized human cells that can develop into many different types of cells in the body. In biology, a stem cell is an undeveloped cell of an organism capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type.  Stem cells can also become certain other kinds of cells through a process called differentiation. Stem cells serve as a body repair system and can generate healthy cells to replace those affected by the disease.

Where do stem cells come from?

Stem cells can be obtained from a variety of sources including; umbilical cord tissue, umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, adipose (fat) tissue, placental tissue, dental pulp, and embryos. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from embryos, and adult stem cells, which come from fully developed tissues such as the brain, skin, umbilical cord tissue and bone marrow. A third type of human engineered stem cell (Induced pluripotent stem cells) are adult stem cells that have been changed in a lab to be more like embryonic stem cells. There are several different types of stem cells, including:

  1. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)
  2. Adult stem cells (ASCs)
  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

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1. Embryonic Stem Cells (Pluripotent stem cells)

An embryonic stem cell (ESC) is a type of stem cell derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, which is a very early stage of development in the embryo. Embryonic stem cells are located in the inner cell mass and are referred to as totipotent cells by scientists.  Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any cell type in the body and potentially be used for various medical purposes, including tissue repair and regenerative medicine.

Embryonic stem cells are often called human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce many different cell types. This is in contrast to "multipotent" stem cells, which can only differentiate into a limited number of cell types.  Pluripotent stem cells are unspecialized and do not possess the specific characteristics (such as shape or gene expression pattern) that enable them to perform specialized functions in specific tissues.

Embryonic stem cells are typically grown in the laboratory as "stem cell lines," which are cultures of human cells that can be maintained and expanded to increase the total amount of pluripotent stem cells. Several lines of human embryonic stem cells have been established and used for research purposes.

Controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells

The use of embryonic stem cells is a controversial topic, as the destruction of an embryo is required to obtain them. This has raised ethical concerns, and laws and guidelines in many countries regulate the use of embryonic stem cells. Despite these controversies, research on embryonic stem cells has led to a better understanding of cell differentiation. Embryonic stem cells have the potential to be used to develop new treatments for a variety of diseases and conditions.

Mouse embryonic stem cell study shows unique differentiated cell types

One study that used mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) was published in the journal Nature in 2002. In this study, the authors demonstrated that mESCs could be used to generate functional neurons in culture.

To generate the neurons, the researchers treated embryonic stem cells with a combination of growth factors and other signaling molecules that induced the cells to differentiate into neurons. The resulting neurons were able to form functional synapses, or connections, with other neurons and responded to stimuli in a manner similar to neurons in the developing brain.

This study demonstrated that embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into functional neurons, which raises the possibility that embryonic stem cells could be used to study the development of the nervous system and to potentially develop therapies for neurological disorders.

It is important to note that this study was conducted in the laboratory and that more research is needed to fully understand the potential of embryonic stem cells and to develop safe and effective therapies using these cells.

Can you use embryonic stem cells in a clinical setting?

While embryonic stem cells have shown great promise in laboratory studies and animal models, they have not yet been used extensively in treatments for humans. This is because there are a number of ethical and technical challenges that need to be addressed before they can be used more widely.

One of the main ethical concerns surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells is that they are derived from human embryos, which raises questions about the moral status of the embryos. Additionally, the process of obtaining embryonic stem cells requires the destruction of the embryo, which is opposed by some people on moral or religious grounds.

There are also technical challenges that need to be overcome before embryonic stem cells can be used more widely in treatments. For example, scientists need to develop ways to control the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific cell types, and they need to find ways to prevent the cells from forming cancer cells when they are transplanted into the body.

2. Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in various tissues throughout the body and can differentiate into different cell types. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining the tissue in which they are found and have the potential to be used for tissue repair and regenerative medicine.

Stem cell research has found that adult stem cells are found in fully developed tissues and organs, unlike embryonic stem cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. Adult stem cells have a more limited ability to differentiate than embryonic stem cells, and they are typically referred to as "multipotent" rather than "pluripotent."

There are several different types of adult stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to blood cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into cells of the bone, cartilage, and fat.  Hematopoietic stem cells also known as perinatal stem cells can also be derived from umbilical cord blood cells - this type of stem cell must be HLA matched to the patient to avoid immune rejection.

Adult cells have been vastly studied

Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells, have been the subject of much scientific research and have the potential to be used to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, including Diabetes, Parkinson's Disease, spinal cord injury, and chronic inflammation, and even help slow the overall aging process.

It is important to note that using adult stem cells is still an active research area. More studies are needed to fully understand these cells' potential and develop safe and effective therapies using adult stem cells.

Stem cells may repair tissues through a process called differentiation

Adult stem cells are found in various tissues throughout the body, including fat cells, umbilical cord tissue, and bone marrow. Mature stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including; skin cells, muscle cells, brain cells, heart muscle cells, nerve cells, heart cells, and adult tissues.

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What are mesenchymal stem cells?

MSCs are adult stem cells that have self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, signaling, cell division, and differentiation properties. MSCs self-renewal capacity is characterized by their ability to divide and develop into multiple specialized cell types in a specific tissue or organ.  MSCs may become unique stem cell types and create more stem cells when placed in cell culture and undergo Vitro fertilization.  (Vitro fertilization can help grow stem cells in a laboratory setting.   MSCs can also replace cells that are damaged or diseased.  MSCs can be sourced from a variety of tissue, including adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, blood, liver, dental pulp, and skin.  

Clinical trials and MSCs

MSCs are widely used in treating various diseases due to their self-renewable, differentiation, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In-vitro (performed in a laboratory setting) and in-vivo (taking place in a living organism) studies have supported an understanding of the mechanisms, safety, and efficacy of MSC therapy in clinical applications. (3)

According to a recent study conducted by Biehl et al., “The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type.” (1)

3. Induced pluripotent stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been genetically reprogrammed to have characteristics of embryonic stem cells. They are generated by introducing specific genes into adult cells, such as skin cells, using viral vectors or other methods. The resulting cells, known as iPSCs, can self-renew and differentiate into any cell type in the body, similar to embryonic stem cells.

One of the key benefits of iPSCs is that they can be generated from a patient's own cells, which eliminates the risk of immune rejection associated with using embryonic stem cells or stem cells from a donor. This makes iPSCs a potentially helpful tool for personalized medicine and tissue repair.

iPSCs have been the subject of much scientific research. They have the potential to be used for a variety of medical purposes, including drug development and testing, disease modeling, and cell-based therapies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential of iPSCs and to develop safe and effective treatments using these cells.

It is important to note that the use of iPs cells are a relatively new area of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand these cells' potential and develop safe and effective therapies using iPSCs.

What are Myeloid stem cells and are they dangerous?

Myeloid stem cells are pluripotent stem cells that reside in the bone marrow or circulation and are the precursors for all elements of the hematopoietic system. They can differentiate into granulocytes and monocytes, collectively called myeloid cells, which are controlled by distinct transcription factors.

Myeloid cells can develop cancer known as myeloid malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Growth and reproduction of these stem cells is controlled by growth factors such as interleukin-3, with a comprehensive diagram showing their development from haematopoietic stem cell to mature cells in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

Where do mesenchymal stem cells come from?

Mesenchymal Stem cells can be obtained from many different sources. Stem cell research indicates that these include adipose (fat tissue), umbilical cord tissue, placental tissue, umbilical cord blood, or bone marrow. You can learn more about specific sources of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cell treatments here. Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells that have self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, signaling, and differentiation properties.  Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) self-renewal capacity is characterized by their ability to divide and develop into multiple specialized cell types in a specific tissue or organ.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be sourced from a variety of tissue, including adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, blood, liver, dental pulp, and skin.

MSCs can become neural stem cells

MSCs can differentiate into tissue-specific stem cells, including cells of the bone, cartilage, heart muscle cells, brain cells, and adipose tissue. While MSCs are not typically thought of as neural cells, some studies have shown that MSCs can differentiate into cells with neural characteristics under certain conditions.

One study found that MSCs treated with specific growth factors and exposed to a neural induction medium could differentiate into cells with characteristics of both neurons and glial cells, which are types of cells that support and protect neurons in the nervous system.

However, the degree to which MSCs can differentiate into fully functional neural cells remains uncertain. More research is needed to fully understand the potential of MSCs to differentiate into neural cells and the potential use of MSCs in treating neural disorders.

Mesenchymal stem cells can have a positive impact on the overall aging process. Learn more here.

How does stem cell therapy work?

Stem cell therapy works by utilizing the self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, signaling, and differentiation properties of stem cells to influence positive change within the body.  Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and developing into multiple specialized cell types present in a specific tissue or organ.  Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells, meaning they present no ethical concerns, MSCs are not sourced from embryonic material.

"The characteristics of presenting no major ethical concerns, having low immunogenicity, and possessing immune modulation functions make MSCs promising candidates for stem cell therapies." - Jiang, et al. (10)

How are stem cells administered?

Stem cells can be administered in a variety of fashions; IV Stem Cell Therapy (intravenous administration), Intrathecal (directly into the spinal canal), stem cell injections into problem areas (knee, hips, hands, etc.). Stem cell research has found that the method of administration can have different effects on a patient and should be thoroughly considered prior to selecting a route.

What is the best stem cell treatment in the world?

It is difficult to definitively state what the best stem cell treatment is the world is as it depends on the medical condition being treated and the specific type of stem cell used. However, studies have shown that adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in a variety of medical conditions and are considered a safe and effective treatment option.

What is a stem cell transplantation?

A stem cell transplant is a procedure in which a patient receives healthy stem cells to replace damaged stem cells. The stem cells may come from the patient's own body (autologous) or from a donor (allogeneic). Before the transplant, the patient receives high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy to prepare the body for transplantation. This is followed by wiping out the bone marrow stem cells and replacing them. An autologous stem cell transplant offers some advantages over allogeneic, such as protection against underlying blood cancers.  

What conditions is a stem cell transplantation used for?

A stem cell transplant is used to treat people with life-threatening cancer or blood diseases caused by abnormal blood cells, such as several types of leukemia, lymphoma and testicular cancer.

It can also be used to treat conditions such as multiple myeloma and some types of leukemia, where the stem cell transplant may work against cancer directly due to an effect called graft-versus-tumor.

Blood forming stem cells has been used to cure thousands of people who have cancer, but there are serious risks associated with this treatment. The US National Marrow Donor Program has a full list of diseases treatable by blood stem cell transplant.

Stem cells target inflammation

The therapeutic uses of stem cells as a potential therapy for a variety of diseases has been immensely explored, the number of clinical trials conducted with Mesenchymal Stem Cells has increased exponentially over the past few years. (4)

Stem cells have a unique, intrinsic property that attracts them to inflammation in the body. Studies have shown that stem cell treatments can regenerate damaged or diseased tissues, reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system promoting better health and quality of life. Mesenchymal stem cells do this by influencing tissue repair via paracrine effects (cell signaling in order to change the behaviour of existing cells) or direct cell-to-cell contact.

"MSCs are able to migrate and seed specifically into damaged tissue sites, where they can differentiate into functional cells to replace damaged or diseased cells" (4)

Diagram showing the processes of MSCs and how they reduce inflammation within the body.
Pictured: Diagram showing the processes of MSCs and how they reduce inflammation within the body.

Stem cell based research conducted by Mao F. et al. found that Mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord tissue (MSCs) facilitate tissue regeneration through mechanisms involving self-renewal and differentiation, supporting angiogenesis and tissue cell survival, and limiting inflammation." (3) 

How can stem cells be used?

MSCs are widely used in various stem cell treatments due to their self-renewable, differentiation, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In-vitro (performed in a laboratory setting) and in-vivo (taking place in a living organism) studies have supported the understanding mechanisms, safety, and efficacy of MSC therapy in clinical applications. (3)

According to Biehl et al., “The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type.” (1)

Stem cell therapeutics

Stem cell therapeutics refers to the use of stem cells for the treatment or prevention of diseases or disorders. Stem cells are a type of cell that have the ability to differentiate into many different types of cells, and they have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and produce more stem cells.

This unique property of stem cells makes them a promising tool for a wide range of therapeutic applications. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into specialized cells. Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. The first clinical trial using stem cell therapy was reported in 2002 and it is still in development.

Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to turn into new types of cells

A stem cell can become many different cells and tissues in the human body. The process of stem cells maturing into new types of cells is called differentiation. This process is the most critical aspect of stem cell treatments, as the cells become the type of cells required for one’s body to heal. 

Stem cells are also self-replicating; this ability allows the cells to multiply into identical copies of themselves.  For example, if stem cells were used to treat a neurological injury, cells administered during treatment could become nerve cells, and then replicate to create exponentially more nerve cells on their own. This ability to duplicate drastically increases the effectiveness of stem cell treatments over time.

Artists depiction of a mesenchymal stem cell in the process of differentiation.
Artists Depiction of MSC undergoing differentiation.

Differentiation (becoming new types of cells)

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells that can self-renew and differentiate into different cell types. In other words, mesenchymal stem cells can become a variety of different cell types including; adipose tissue, cartilage, muscle, tendon/ligament, bone, neurons, and hepatocytes (8)

According to stem cell research conducted in 2016 by Almalki et al. -  "The differentiation of MSCs into specific mature cell types is controlled by various cytokines, growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and transcription factors (TFs). (8)

Mesenchymal stem cells contribute to tissue regeneration and differentiation, including the maintenance of homeostasis and function, adaptation to altered metabolic or environmental requirements, and the repair of damaged tissue. (9)

Stem cells age as we do

Stem cell numbers and effectiveness begin to decrease as we age exponentially. For example, stem cells from a person in their twenties are not nearly as high quality as the brand new cells sourced from umbilical cord tissue.

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How is stem cell therapy utilized?

Adult stem cell therapy may be able to treat orthopaedic, inflammatory, autoimmune and neurological conditions, with studies conducted on use for Crohn’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, COPD, Parkinson’s, ALS, Stroke recovery and more.

Stem cells do not necessarily provide a cure for these conditions. The premise is allowing the body to heal itself well enough to mitigate the symptoms of the conditions for long periods. In many cases, this alone allows for a substantial increase in quality of life for patients.

Will the body reject stem cells?

Cord-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells do not have any risk of rejection within the body. They are youthful, immune-privileged, undifferentiated cells that have no rejection in the body because they have yet to be “claimed.” 

There are no blood products associated with them either, removing the need for a donor match; they are universally accepted. These cells seek out inflammation in the body and begin to heal the damaged tissue. Mesenchymal cord tissue-derived stem cells have been administered thousands of times at clinics around the world without instances of rejection (graft vs. host disease).

Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs)

UC-MSCs can be sourced from a variety of areas including Wharton’s Jelly, cord lining, and peri-vascular region of the umbilical cord. As a commonly discarded tissue, the umbilical cord contains a rich source of mesenchymal stromal cells, which are therefore obtained non-invasively (5).

"UC-MSCs are the most primitive type of MSCs, shown by their higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and KLF4 markers." (6)

Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into different cell types and have the greatest proliferation rate of the three mentioned types of stem cells (adipose, bone marrow, cord tissue). (7)

Similar to adipose tissue and bone marrow-derived MSCs, UC-MSCs are known to secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, improving different cell repair mechanisms. (4). These functions all assist the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.

Non-invasive cell product

The harvesting procedure of UC-MSCs is non-invasive as it does not require extraction from the patient.  The MSCs are taken directly from an area of an ethically donated human umbilical cord.

UC-MSCs also have a high proliferative potential than BMSCs and ASCs meaning they expand in vitro more effectively allowing for greater efficiency when obtaining higher cell numbers. (15)

Studies have found that UC-MSCs genes related to cell proliferation (EGF), PI3K-NFkB signaling pathway (TEK), and neurogenesis (RTN1, NPPB, and NRP2) were upregulated (increase in the number of receptors) in UC-MSCs compared to in BM-MSCs. (15)

Umbilical cord tissue diagram showing where stem cells originate
Pictured: Umbilical cord tissue diagram showing where stem cells originate

Why use umbilical cord tissue?

Cord tissue is rich in mesenchymal stem cells, potentially used to help heal, regenerate & treat a variety of conditions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) derived from umbilical cord tissue have shown the ability to avoid a negative response from a person’s immune system, allowing the cells to be transplanted in a wide range of people without fear of rejection. These transplants may have the ability to vastly increase the body’s natural healing abilities and have robust anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. For an in depth comparison about different cell types please review this article.

Stem Cell Clinics

Stem cell centers are medical facilities that offer stem cell based therapies using human stem cells, which are the body's raw materials from which all other specialized cells are generated. Within the United States, these clinics must comply with FDA regulations to provide effective treatments for patients with limited options.

Bone marrow transplants are a common form of stem cell therapy used to treat diseases such as lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma, while research is being conducted into the potential of TET2 enzymes found in hematopoietic stem cells to prime the body for leukemia.

How successful is stem cell therapy?

Stem cell therapy is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. The success rates of stem cell therapy can vary depending on the type of treatment, the disease or condition being treated, and the stage of the disease. In general, stem cell therapy is considered a safe and effective treatment option for many conditions, and many clinical trials have shown promising results.

How long does stem cell therapy last?

The duration of stem cell therapy improvements can vary depending on the type of treatment, the disease or condition being treated, and the stage of the disease. Some studies have shown that the effects of stem cell therapy can last for several years or even indefinitely, while other studies have shown that the results may be more short-lived.

Additionally, some types of stem cell therapy may require multiple treatments for optimal results. It's important to note that stem cell therapy is a complex field, and the duration of effects can vary considerably from patient to patient.

The best stem cell treatment clinic in the world

DVC Stem is the best stem cell therapy clinic in the world because of their commitment to safety and efficacy. First, the clinic has an IRB-approved treatment protocol, which means that it has undergone rigorous review by an independent ethics committee to ensure the safety and rights of patients. This gives patients peace of mind knowing that the treatment they are receiving has been deemed safe and ethical by experts in the field.

Furthermore, DVC Stem's clinical study, "The Effects of Cord Tissue Derived MSCs on the Treatment of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation," is registered with the Cayman Islands government, adding an additional layer of oversight and transparency.

DVC Stem's stem cells are ethically sourced from AATB-certified, US-donated, full-term human umbilical cords and processed in an award-winning partner medical laboratory located in the USA, which is fully FDA registered, cGMP compliant, ISO 9001, and ISO 13485 certified. The cells are tested to ISCT standards for viability to meet minimum QA requirements multiple times before treatment.

Finally, the DVC Stem treatment protocol lasts two days, including the intravenous (IV) transplant of 300 million culturally expanded human umbilical cord tissue-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). They include a variety of therapies designed to aid stem cell activation and potency (physiotherapy, acupuncture, lymphatic massage). The procedure is minimally invasive (single IV transfusion) and has minimal downtime.

All these factors make DVC Stem the best stem cell clinic in the world. They have the combination of a safe and effective treatment protocol, oversight by government and independent agencies, high-quality stem cells, and a variety of therapies designed to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment.

Conclusion

Previously untreatable neurodegenerative diseases may now possibly become treatable with advanced stem cell therapies.  Regenerative medicine and its benefits may be the key to prolonging human life.

To learn more about the use of mesenchymal stem cells in a clinical setting visit our protocol page.  DVC Stem provides an expanded stem cell treatment that utilizes umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) sourced from an FDA-compliant lab in the United States.  DVC Stem offers treatment for a variety of conditions including Multiple Sclerosis, Crohn's Disease, Parkinson's, and other autoimmune conditions.


References:

(1) Biehl, Jesse K, and Brenda Russell. “Introduction to Stem Cell Therapy.” The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2009, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104807/.

(2) Zakrzewski, Wojciech, et al. “Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future.” Stem Cell Research & Therapy, BioMed Central, 26 Feb. 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390367/.

(3) Watt, Fiona M, and Ryan R Driskell. “The Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, The Royal Society, 12 Jan. 2010, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842697/.

(4) Mao, Fei, et al. “Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” Oncotarget, Impact Journals LLC, 6 June 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28402942.

(5) Walker, J. T., Keating, A., & Davies, J. E. (2020, May 28). Stem Cells: Umbilical Cord/Wharton’s Jelly Derived. Cell Engineering and Regeneration. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992171/.

(6) Torres Crigna, A., Daniele, C., Gamez, C., Medina Balbuena, S., Pastene, D. O., Nardozi, D., … Bieback, K. (2018, June 15). Stem/Stromal Cells for Treatment of Kidney Injuries With Focus on Preclinical Models. Frontiers in medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6013716/.

(7) Mazini, L., Rochette, L., Amine, M., & Malka, G. (2019, May 22). Regenerative Capacity of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs), Comparison with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). International journal of molecular sciences. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566837/.

(8) Almalki, S. G., & Agrawal, D. K. (2016). Key transcription factors in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010472/.

(9) Grafe, I., Alexander, S., Peterson, J. R., Snider, T. N., Levi, B., Lee, B., & Mishina, Y. (2018, May 1). TGF-β Family Signaling in Mesenchymal Differentiation. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932590/.

(10) Jiang, W., & Xu, J. (2020, January). Immune modulation by mesenchymal stem cells. Cell proliferation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985662/.

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