Article updated on:
September 3, 2023
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In recent years, stem cell treatment has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for various medical conditions, including thyroid disorders. Among the different types of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained significant attention for their potential to differentiate into various cell types, including functional thyroid follicular cells. These MSCs, derived from bone marrow and adipose-derived stem cells, offer a valuable alternative to the controversial human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
The human thyroid gland, responsible for producing essential hormones, comprises mature thyroid cells and thyroid follicular cells. Thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and various forms of thyroid cancer, like follicular thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, can lead to significant health problems. Research on stem cell markers, perinatal stem cells, and embryonic mesenchymal stem cells from mouse models has provided valuable insights into the potential use of MSCs for regenerating human thyroid cells and treating thyroid-related diseases.
This article delves into the potential applications and benefits of MSCs in treating thyroid disorders, including generating functional thyroid cells, targeting thyroid cancer stem cells, and using thyroid resident stem cells in regenerative medicine. Furthermore, it discusses the challenges and future directions in stem cell treatment for thyroid disorders, highlighting the potential of MSCs as a more ethically viable and promising option in stem cell research and regenerative medicine.
Overview of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that results in inflammation and gradual destruction of the thyroid gland. It is one of the significant causes of hypothyroidism, leading to a deficiency in thyroid hormone production, which is essential for metabolism regulation and organ development.
Understanding Thyroid Gland Functions and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Hashimoto's Disease
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland. In this condition, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and damage to thyroid tissues. The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in treating and understanding Hashimoto's has become an area of interest in recent years.
The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones essential for regulating metabolism and other vital body functions. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the production and release of these hormones. In Hashimoto's, the presence of autoantibodies, such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, leads to the destruction of thyroid tissues and the formation of thyroid lesions. As a result, the gland becomes less efficient in producing hormones, causing hypothyroidism.
Exploring the Significance of Stem Cells in Thyroid Regeneration and Healing
Research on human thyroid glands and mouse embryonic stem cells has shed light on the role of stem cells, including thyroid stem cells and thyroid resident precursor cells, in developing and regenerating thyroid tissues. The expression of thyroid transcription factors in these stem or precursor cells is essential for their differentiation into functional thyroid cells. Additionally, growth factors and the interplay between tumor-associated mast cells and thyroid carcinoma cells can influence the behavior of cancer stem cells found in thyroid cancers.
Harnessing Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Autoimmune Disease Treatment, Including Hashimoto's
MSCs, derived from human adipose tissue or umbilical cord tissue sources, have shown promise in mitigating the effects of autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto's. These multipotent stem cells can modulate the immune system, promote tissue repair, and improve cardiac progenitor cell survival. In the context of Hashimoto's, MSCs may contribute to fewer thyroid lesions and improved thyroid function.
Discovering Connections between Cancer Research and MSC Applications for Improved Therapies
Furthermore, studies on orthotopic breast cancer tumors and fetal cell carcinogenesis models have provided insights into cancer suicide gene therapy and the potential application of MSCs in cancer treatment. Induced follicular cells expressing thyroid transcription factors may be key to understanding the genetic basis of thyroid cancers and devising novel therapeutic strategies.
Stem cell therapy as a potential treatment for thyroid diseases
MSCs can be clinically helpful in treating Hashimoto due to their unique properties and potential therapeutic functions. MSCs can be easily harvested from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord. They also exhibit low expression of MHC antigens, making them more compatible with the immune system. Furthermore, MSCs can target injured organs or tissues and display pro- or anti-inflammatory effects based on the homing niche.
Therapeutic Potential of MSCs in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) characterized by lymph cell infiltration, fibrotic changes, and parenchymal atrophy. Studies have shown that MSCs derived from human fetal umbilical cord tissue can be therapeutically beneficial in rat models of Hashimoto's disease by reducing thyroid lesions and lymphoid infiltration. The primary mechanism for this effect is the modulation of Th17/Treg cell balance.
MSCs in Gene Therapy for Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Additionally, MSCs have been used in combination with gene therapy to treat autoimmune thyroiditis. Both human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hATMSC) and gene-transduced hATMSC decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines and restore the Th1/Th2 balance. These findings suggest that MSCs may play a significant role in treating Hashimoto's disease through their immunomodulatory properties and their ability to reduce thyroid lesions and inflammation.
Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Thyroid Treatment
Bone marrow stem cells, a significant source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), offer great potential in cell therapy for thyroid disorders. As the stem cell surge continues, the importance of MSCs in treating thyroid conditions becomes increasingly evident.
Stem cells repair damaged tissues, modulate the immune system, and promote overall tissue regeneration. In the context of cell therapy for thyroid disorders, MSCs can potentially influence the expression of thyroid cancer genes, thereby paving the way for innovative treatment approaches. As research advances, using bone marrow stem cells and MSCs will likely contribute to developing more effective thyroid disease and cancer therapies.
Umbilical Cord Tissue Stem Cells: Advantages in Therapeutic Applications
Umbilical cord tissue stem cells have several advantages over other stem cell sources, such as bone marrow or adipose tissue, which make them a promising option for therapeutic applications. One significant benefit is their accessibility and abundance. Umbilical cord stem cells can be easily obtained during delivery without causing harm or discomfort to the mother or baby. This non-invasive collection method ensures a plentiful supply of stem cells for research and treatment.
Another advantage of umbilical cord stem cells is their immunological properties. These cells have a lower expression of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) antigens, reducing the risk of immune rejection when transplanted. This characteristic allows for higher compatibility between donors and recipients, making umbilical cord stem cells an ideal choice for allogeneic transplantation.
Furthermore, umbilical cord stem cells exhibit high proliferative potential and a robust capacity for differentiation. They can differentiate into various cell types, including those needed for tissue repair and regeneration. Their enhanced regenerative abilities make them particularly effective in treating multiple conditions, from autoimmune diseases to tissue injuries.
Lastly, the use of umbilical cord stem cells raises fewer ethical concerns than other sources, such as embryonic stem cells. Since the umbilical cord is typically discarded after birth, minimal moral and ethical implications are associated with their collection and use, making them a more broadly accepted option for research and clinical applications.
Umbilical cord tissue stem cells offer numerous advantages, including easy accessibility, immunological compatibility, high regenerative potential, and reduced ethical concerns. These properties make them a promising option for various therapeutic applications and contribute to their growing popularity in regenerative medicine.
Role of thyroid hormones in organ Development and Homeostasis
Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in organ development and maintaining homeostasis. They are indispensable for properly functioning the central nervous system, growth, metabolism, and other systems.
Thyroid dysfunction and its consequences
Thyroid dysfunction, resulting from thyroiditis or thyroid cancer, can lead to various health issues, including cognitive impairment, fatigue, weight gain, and depression.
Types of Stem Cells for Thyroid Diseases
- Embryonic stem cells (ESCs): ESCs are derived from the early stages of embryonic development and can differentiate into various cell types, including thyroid cells.
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): MSCs are found in the connective tissue or stroma surrounding organs and other tissues. They have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties and can potentially be used to treat thyroid diseases.
- Organ resident stem cells (RSCs): RSCs are present in various organs, including the thyroid gland, and can potentially be used for organ-specific cell regeneration.
Stem Cell Therapy for Thyroiditis
Stem cell therapy for thyroiditis utilizes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in treating autoimmune thyroid diseases. MSCs play a crucial role in regulating immune cells and thyroid hormone levels and promoting the growth of newly proliferated follicular cells. These stem cells mediate the healing process in lung and thyroid tissues by stimulating thyroid cell differentiation and interacting with dermal fibroblasts.
Additionally, progenitor cells contribute to the fetal cell carcinogenesis model, potentially impacting thyroid cancer cells and thyroid cancer genes. By harnessing the therapeutic potential of human pluripotent cells, stem cell therapy offers a promising avenue for addressing thyroiditis and its associated complications.
Anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells
MSCs have shown the potential to reduce inflammation in various diseases, including thyroiditis. Their anti-inflammatory properties may help suppress the autoimmune response in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Role of stem cells in thyroid function modulation
Stem cells, especially ESCs, and iPSs, have the potential to regenerate thyroid cells and modulate thyroid function, which may help in the treatment of thyroiditis.
Suppression of thyroiditis using stem cells
Stem cells have shown promise in suppressing the progression of thyroiditis, potentially providing a novel treatment approach for autoimmune thyroid diseases like Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Future Directions and Conclusion
Continued research and advancements in stem cell technologies may help overcome the current challenges and pave the way for effective stem cell therapy in treating Hashimoto's thyroiditis and other thyroid diseases.
Combining stem cell therapy with other treatments
Stem cell therapy may be more effective when combined with other treatments, such as hormone replacement therapy or immunomodulatory drugs, to provide a comprehensive approach to managing thyroid disorders.
Personalized medicine and stem cell therapy
Stem cell therapy has the potential to be tailored to individual patients, providing personalized treatment options that may improve treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of side effects.
In conclusion, stem cell therapy is promising for treating Hashimoto's thyroiditis and other thyroid diseases. While progress has been made in understanding the potential applications of stem cells in thyroid disorders, several challenges remain to be addressed. Future advancements in stem cell research and technology, coupled with a multidisciplinary approach to treatment, may lead to novel and effective therapies for patients suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis and other thyroid-related conditions.
(1) Ye S, Zhu ZL. Stem Cell Therapy for Thyroid Diseases: Progress and Challenges. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2022 Mar 5;96:100665. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2022.100665. PMID: 35371349; PMCID: PMC8968462.