What are Mesenchymal Stem Cells?

Louis A. Cona M.D.

Dec 13, 2019

Reading time: 2 minutes 49 seconds

An in-depth description of mesenchymal stem cells and what makes them so valuable.

What are Mesenchymal Stem Cells?

Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells isolated from different sources that can differentiate into other types of cells. In humans, these sources include; bone marrow, fat (adipose tissue), umbilical cord tissue (Wharton’s Jelly) or amniotic fluid (the fluid surrounding a fetus).

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or stromal stem cells, can differentiate into many different types of cells within the body, including:

  • Bone cells
  •  Cartilage
  •  Muscle cells
  •  Neural cells
  • Skin cells
  • Corneal cells

Pictured: Diagram showing the differentiation potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Pictured: Diagram showing the differentiation potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

We all have Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).  MSCs are primarily found in the bone marrow of every person and remain dormant until called upon to promote healing within the body. They age as we age, and their number and effectiveness decreases over the years. 

The medical community has known of the existence of MSCs since the late 19th century. However, it has only been with recent advancements that physicians have been able to activate and supplement these cells to treat a variety of conditions.

Where are mesenchymal stem cells sourced?

For years, researchers believed that mesenchymal stem cells only existed within bone marrow. However, research has found that there are a variety of sources for MSCs, including umbilical cord tissue, body fat, molar teeth, and amniotic fluid. 

The cells derived from cord tissue, more specifically Wharton’s Jelly, are the youngest and most primitive MSCs available. With the majority of umbilical cords simply discarded after childbirth, this source is both non-harmful and readily available.  

The young nature of these cells allows enormous potential for them to transform into whatever type of cell is necessary within the body. Youthful cells also tend to replicate at a faster rate, and MSCs have the ability not only to differentiate into other cell types but multiply to increase their healing effect on the body. 

Researchers have also found that a stem cell’s potency is tied to its age, therefore making cord tissue MSCs some of the most capable cells around.

In contrast, treatments that utilize MSCs from a patient’s fat (adipose) sample have shown weak or unreliable responses. In general, a stem cell is only as good as its source, and if the cells come from an older individual, no amount of expansion will increase their potency.

Stem cell numbers and effectiveness begin to decrease as we age exponentially. For example, stem cells from a person in their twenties are not nearly as high quality as the brand new cells sourced from cord tissue. Although treatment is available with any source for MSCs, patients risk little to no results from using lower quality stem cells.

What are mesenchymal stem cells used for?

By sourcing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from donated cord tissue and expanding them to higher numbers, the medical community has created the ability to supplement a person’s stem cell count through transplantation with younger, highly competent cells. 

Mesenchymal stem cells are immunopriviledged

MSCs have shown the ability to avoid a negative response from a person’s immune system, allowing the cells to be transplanted in a wide range of people without fear of rejection. These transplants vastly increase the body’s natural healing abilities and have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. 

Mesenchymal stem cells can treat a variety of conditions

To date, MSCs have been used to treat many autoimmune diseases, with studies conducted on use for Crohn’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, COPD, Parkinson’s, and more.

While MSCs do not provide a cure for these conditions, the premise is allowing the body to heal itself well enough to mitigate the symptoms of the conditions for long periods. In many cases, this alone allows for a substantial increase in quality of life for patients.

Mesenchymal stem cells have little adverse side effects

Very few adverse effects have been found, with the main drawback being the need for repetitive treatments to maintain high stem cell numbers in the body. Without repeat treatments, the cells will eventually become used to the point that a patient’s healing ability will return to normal over a few years. However, patient reports have shown the effects of quality treatment lasting approximately 5-10 years.


(1) Ullah, I., Subbarao, R. B., & Rho, G. J. (2015, April 28). Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective. Retrieved from


Tyler explains his experience at DVC Stem in the Cayman Islands.

Tyler is optimistic that he will see positive results post treatment.

"The cool thing about the Cayman Islands besides being beautiful, it was an opportunity to get some rest and relaxation allowing my body to heal and restore. I'm back in the US now and feel like I am ready to conquer the world."

- Tyler Heid


2 weeks post treatment, MS patient Tyler is beginning to see amazing progress. He has been wheelchair bound for the last year and has not been able to move his legs unassisted before now.

Tyler Heid, lifting his foot 12" off the ground with 2 lb weights on his ankles.

Tyler - 2 weeks post treatment

"I'm on a path of progression and I'm getting better and better each day."

Tyler Heid - 2 months post treatment


Tyler updates about his progress, explaining the amazing response he has been receiving from his friends and family.

"People coming up to me saying I am moving, talking and smiling so much better. They are noticing a lot of things that have improved over the course of 3 months."

"This morning I was able to do things that I was unable to do before, I was able to stand up and lift my leg higher than I ever have before."


5 months post treatment Tyler sends us an update on his progress.

"I'm able to smile better, I have more control over the left side of my face."

"I have an increased ability to grip, lift my legs higher and higher which has gone well."

Tyler is optimistic and on the right track to recovery. We are ecstatic to see his progress and look forward to more updates from him.

"I have an increased ability to grip, lift my legs higher and higher which has gone well."

Tyler Heid - 5 months post treatment

"This is exciting stuff, god bless"

Matthew Murry - MS Patient


Matthew experiences sensation in the bottom of his feet after receiving a simple nerve test.

His left foot did not experience any sensation or move at all, but what happened to his right foot is extremely exciting!

David Lyons

Multiple Sclerosis

Although David Lyons was able to successfully fight Multiple Sclerosis through a strict regimen of diet and exercise, he wanted to ensure he was doing everything he could to stay fit. Multiple Sclerosis can be managed with treatment, but there is currently no cure for the disease. For that reason, David came to DVC Stem years ago to use the regenerative and anti-inflammatory attributes of stem cells to aid in his fight for fitness.

The positive results he experienced enabled David to stay strong in the gym, now into his 60s, and that is why he continues to support our clinic to this day.

About the author


Dr. Cona has been performing stem cell therapy for over 10 years. He is a member of the World Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (WAAAM). He is also a recognized member of the British Medical Association, the General Medical Council (UK), the Caribbean College of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. He is the Medical Director for DVC Stem a world-renowned stem cell therapy clinic located in Grand Cayman.

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