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What are the 4 different types of stem cells?

David Lyons

Guest contributor

Feb 25, 2020

Louis A. Cona, MD

Medical Director of DVC Stem

Stem cell therapy clinic in Grand Cayman


Tuesday, February 25, 2020

The article will explain what a stem cell is & the 4 different types of cells.

What are Stem Cells?

Stem cells are the substructure for every tissue and organ in the human body. There are a variety of  stem cells that come from different places in the body.  These stem cells can also be formed at different times in ones life. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development & different types of tissue-specific (adult) stem cells that appear during development and remain in ones bodies throughout life.

All stem cells have self renewal capabilities (make copies of themselves) and evolve (develop into more specialized cells). Beyond these two critical abilities, though, stem cells vary widely in their regenerative abilities. Due to this fact, researchers use a variety of stem cells in their investigations and clinical trials.

1.  Embryonic stem cells

This type of stem cell is obtained from the inner mass of the blastocyst, a hollow body of cells that in humans will form 3 to 5 days after an egg cell is fertilized by a single sperm.  

The cells inside the inner mass will give way to more specialized cells within the human body (our tissues and organs).  But, when scientists extract that inner cell mass they are able to retain the initial properties of embryonic stem cells when grown in specialized laboratory conditions.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, this means that they can give way to  every cell type in the fully formed body, but not the placenta and umbilical cord. These cells are incredibly valuable because they provide a renewable resource for studying normal development and disease, and for testing drugs and other therapies. Human embryonic stem cells have been derived primarily from blastocysts created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) for assisted reproduction that were no longer needed.

2.  Tissue derived stem cells

Also referred to as somatic or adult stem cells are much more specialised than embryonic stem cells.  These stem cells can create a multitude of different cell types for the specific organ in which they originate from.

Tissue-specific stem cells are difficult to locate in the human body. They don’t seem to multiply in culture as easily as embryonic stem cells do. However, study of these cells have increased our understanding of normal human development, how we age and what happens to the body when we are physically injured.

3.  Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Also referred to as MSCs; these are cells that are isolated from the stroma (connective tissue that surrounds other organs & tissue).  Mesenchymal Stem Cells are also sometimes referred to as "stromal cells" by scientists.  

Initially MSCs were discovered in bone marrow and have been proved to create bone, fat cells & cartilage.  Today, they can be grown from other tissues as well such as; fat, cord blood & cord tissue.  Not all MSCs are the same, in fact, their characteristics depend on the location in the body that they are grown from.

4. Induced pluripotent stem cells

Also known as iPS; induced pluripotent stem cells are cells that have been engineered in the lab by the conversion of tissue-specific cells (skin cells, etc.) into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells.  

iPS differs from embryonic stem cells in a few ways.  Firstly, iPS cells were originally produced by using viruses to insert additional copies of genes into tissue specific cells. Secondly they are used by scientists to learn more about disease onset and progression; rather than supplement existing human cells.

DVC Stem uses umbilical cord tissue-derived stem cells that are ethically sourced from Vitrobiopharma in Golden Colorado, USA.

DVC Stem, based at The Da Vinci Centre and is fully licensed and inspected by the government of the Cayman Islands. As a British Overseas Territory, healthcare regulations are extremely strict, on par with the US, UK, and EU. Additionally, our entire medical staff is fully registered and licensed, and our stem cell protocols are IRB reviewed and approved by a board in the United States.  Learn more about how stem cells by submitting the form below.

"Dr. Cona is a leading edge stem cell treatment physician"

Matthew Murry - MS Patient


"Is the video I posted from this morning! My speech is so easy for me now, got easier throughout the day! I can talk like a NYer (fast) for the first time in years! Praise God!"

- Matthew Murry


Only 3 days after treatment, Matthew is now able to touch his nose with his eyes closed as well as touch his thumb and pinky together. Both of which he was previously unable to do before treatment.

We are excited to see his continued progress. His story will be updated here so keep an eye out!

Matthew showing his progress with mobility

Matthew Murry - 3 days post treatment

"This is exciting stuff, god bless"

Matthew Murry - MS Patient


Matthew experiences sensation in the bottom of his feet after receiving a simple nerve test.

His left foot did not experience any sensation or move at all, but what happened to his right foot is extremely exciting!


Matthew is now able to lift his leg unassisted. He was previously unable to do so.

Matthew is experiencing the benefits of stem cell therapy first hand. You can view his progress video here.

Matthew showing some amazing mobility improvements.

Matthew Murry - 50 days post treatment

"Amazing progress from one of our MS patients Matthew Murray"

Louis A. Cona, MD - DVC Stem


Matthew is able to stand up with the assistance of stability bars.

David Lyons

Multiple Sclerosis

Although David Lyons was able to successfully fight Multiple Sclerosis through a strict regimen of diet and exercise, he wanted to ensure he was doing everything he could to stay fit. Multiple Sclerosis can be managed with treatment, but there is currently no cure for the disease. For that reason, David came to DVC Stem years ago to use the regenerative and anti-inflammatory attributes of stem cells to aid in his fight for fitness.

The positive results he experienced enabled David to stay strong in the gym, now into his 60s, and that is why he continues to support our clinic to this day.

Are you a candidate?

Complete our online application form to find out if you qualify for stem cell therapy.


About Our Medical DIrector

Louis A. Cona, MD


Dr. Cona has been performing stem cell therapy for over 10 years. He is a member of the World Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (WAAAM). He is also a recognized member of the British Medical Association, the General Medical Council (UK), the Caribbean College of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. He is the Medical Director for DVC Stem a world-renowned stem cell therapy clinic located in Grand Cayman.

Are you a candidate?

Complete our online application form to find out if you qualify for stem cell therapy.


Receive stem cell information via email

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Receive stem cell information via email

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.